Maintaining tax records
Tax accounting is performed for all fees, payments, and duties. At the same time, the information must be reliable and rational for the tax authorities.
Why do you need tax accounting, what tasks does it solve?
Tax accounting is a system of summarizing information for determining the tax accounting base based on the data of primary documents. Despite the application of special regimes, companies still have tax accounting responsibilities.
It is necessary to distinguish between the definitions of tax accounting and accounting services. The most important difference of tax accounting in the tax authorities is that it is initially necessary for the owners of companies. Despite the activities of government agencies interested in financial reporting, information comes in specialized forms. For example, when calculating insurance premiums, the service looks at the calculation of contributions in the prescribed form, this is expressed in all taxes.
The purpose of tax accounting is to establish authentic information about the process of regulating activities. The information obtained contributes to the development of the correct tactics of taxation of economic activities. The following goals are distinguished:
- Control of the accuracy of tax calculation and payment.
- Minimizing financial losses.
- Improving the financial stability of the company.
From these goals, tasks are formed that show the relevance of the constant analysis of the company’s work. Identification of arrears in obligations to the tax authorities and determination of the amount of contributions.
The analysis is regulated by the requirements of tax accounting, recorded in the orders of the Federal Tax Service. The main goal of enterprises is to set up tax accounting in the organization.
Tax accounting includes the summation of facts, and in the implementation of accounting checks, the preparation and execution of indicators.
Options for maintaining, principles and procedure for organizing tax records
Management has the right to make tax accounting freely. The registration system contains the following information:
- Rules for setting up profit and loss.
- The mode of working out the negative consequences, taken into account in a clearly marked interval.
- The aggregate of losses transferred to costs in other periods.
- The order of formation of the amounts of reserve reserves.
- Arrears of deductions to the budget.
To confirm the materials presented in the tax accounting, the authorities accept the main accounting documents, registers for analytical accounts, and calculation of the tax base.
Any activity of the enterprise is subject to tax accounting and leads to the mandatory payment of contributions.
Principles of tax assessments set out in the Tax Code:
- profit and loss recognition;
- material independence of the company;
- immutability of the small business;
- medium and large enterprises;
- the fragility of specifying the practical activities of the enterprise;
- consistency in the use of tax accounting regulations, consistency in the assessment of income and expenses.
There are different ways of tax accounting:
- Separate coordination of the two forms of analysis. Used in large corporations.
- Implementation of tax analysis on the basis of accounting. Used to combine the types of evaluation of materials.
- Adjustment of reconciliation of correction of statistical data. When violations occur, the registers recreate the differences between the indicators.
- Regulation of tax audits in the sole structure of accounts. It is preferred for small businesses.
Each company chooses the appropriate way to configure the mechanism for summarizing information.
Income tax in each company is based on the amount of taxable profit. To calculate the tax base for income tax, materials on completed transactions for a certain period are collected, the resulting values are added up and ordered based on primary sources, based on the sections of the declaration.
In order to enter VAT, the accountant must calculate all expenditure invoices, sales on the received advances to establish VAT for payment, compensation and renewal.
The tax is recorded at different municipal rates. It should be taken into account that there are operations where VAT is refunded.
Personal income tax is deducted from the salary of employees and amounts to 13%, and for citizens living in another state – 30 %.
Payments from which personal income tax is not collected, according to the article of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation:
- When traveling within the country, the travel fee is 700 rubles, while abroad it is 2,500 rubles.
- When paying for education.
- Compensation of mortgage contributions.
If an employee has purchased a living space, has received paid training or treatment, specialized deductions are accepted.
Unified agricultural tax
When compiling the analysis, it is necessary to base it on the basis of accounting. Organizations consider the following operations logical:
- form objects according to the same or slightly different rules;
- create a system for regulating accounting estimates for tax audit tasks;
- form registers of differences between the two types of accounting;
- create the necessary documents for calculating the tax of agricultural producers;
- perform a combined accounting of profit and loss in the process of selling fixed assets.
The tax rate depends on the region, the products produced, the number of employees, but not more than 6 %. The tax is paid to the budget twice a year.
This mechanism involves getting rid of the organization’s obligations to pay property tax, income tax and VAT.
Based on the articles of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation, when applying the USN, they are required to keep state records. The book of accounting for dividends and expenses in the USN includes:
- Profit and loss.
- Costs for the purchase of fixed assets and for the creation of current assets used in the formation of the fiscal base.
- The amount of losses to reduce the audit base for tax, when using the simplified tax system.
The USN is cost-effective for small and medium-sized businesses.
Personal income tax for sole proprietors
When an individual entrepreneur contributes to the employment of people and pays them a salary, he becomes responsible for paying personal income tax. The tax is calculated from payments under labor and civil contracts. It is charged not only from wages, but also from prepayments, settlement payments, etc.
A businessman should submit a report on personal income tax payments to the relevant authorities. If the organization employs more than 10 people, the report can be submitted in electronic form. If 10 employees work, the reports are submitted on paper.
UTII and the patent system
Tax accounting is related to the product of the provisions stipulated in Chapter 26.3 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation. For an LLC, the registration of a fee involves fixing the cash system and observing the special performance indicators of the enterprise that affect the composition of the tax return.
Revenue under the patent tax system is recorded in the income register. This document shows the profit on the patent. Under the patent system, expenses are not taken into account.
Property tax, land tax, transport tax
Property contributions are included in the group of other expenses. Large firms and entrepreneurs who own land plots are required to pay a regular land fee. The fixed value of the base depends on the cadastral value of the plot. The rates vary depending on the location and destination of the land. Other expenses include transport tax.
To structure payments, it is necessary to conduct fiscal registration of acts in specialized bodies. The procedure for maintaining tax records is established by the acts of the federal service.